Best Programming Languages for Mobile And Web App Development
Best Programming Languages for Mobile And Web App Development
You get a client requirement as “Develop an application for food delivery”. As an app developer, your first few questions would be:
So many decisions to make. But, these decisions help you with the process ahead.
The programming language that you select helps you write programs that facilitate app development. Many different languages are available for developing Native apps, Hybrid apps, or Web apps. Technology managers deal with this choice question every time they have to build an app.
The different programming languages used under various categories of app development are:
Native apps are apps developed specifically for one platform. Like some apps are specific to Android phones, while some apps are specific to iOS platforms. This is because the code is different for both platforms.
Such apps are highly customized apps built using the native components of the device for which it is being made. You can install such apps through Google’s Play Store for Android and Apple’s App Store for iOS.
Some of the programming languages used for developing native apps are:
Who does not know about the Java programming language? It is the default programming language for Android. It is an object-oriented language and runs on a virtual machine.
The advantages of using Java are the availability of multiple development tools, higher security, and no recompilation required for different phones. It is easy to use, exception handling and garbage collection are possible, and it possesses rich APIs.
It consumes a lot of memory, and hence, its performance is slow.
Kotlin is the substitute for Java for developing apps on Android. Similar to Java, Kotlin runs on the Java Virtual Machine. It can use the same libraries as created for Java.
The best part about Kotlin is the lesser chances of error because of short, compressed coding. It is easy to use and flexible.
One demerit of Kotlin is it’s slower than Java and many other programming languages.
Objective-C is considered the default language for developing iOS apps. An object-oriented programming language, objective-C is based on the language C. Its characteristics include high stability, dynamic run-time, automatic garbage collection, and expressive message syntax.
The most significant merit of this language is that you save time on upgrades and updates.
A demerit is the language’s incapability to handle the demands of multiple modern features in applications.
Swift is the new version of objective-C without the C. Programming on Swift is easier than Objective-C, and it allows you to build several features. It can extend to include Dynamic Libraries and maintain them.
Its key merits include speed, scalability, ease of use, and safety.
One of the most significant demerits is that there are lesser resources in this language, because of which its library is limited.
Hybrid apps are apps built for cross-platforms. The code is commonly created for both iOS and Android; you do not need different codes for them. The merit is that your time spent writing different codes is saved, but it compromises the flexibility in functionality.
They are a combination of native mobile apps and web-based apps. Such apps use a mobile WebView object but are implemented in a native container. When you open a hybrid app, it displays either entirely or some parts of web content.
Some of the programming languages used for developing hybrid apps are:
It is an open-source framework. The functioning of React Native is similar to native iOS and native Android apps. That is why you can use the UI blocks of both Android and iOS to develop mobile apps.
With React Native, developers have the advantage of code reusability for iOS and Android. Since the native codes of both platforms interact, the operations of React Native apps are better. Also, there are time and cost savings because the code can be reused, and libraries are accessible.
Using a unified API for both iOS and Android is a difficult task, making it challenging to use this programming language for complex user interfaces. It suffers from a longer initialization time and less security.
An object-oriented programming language, C# is ideal for Windows apps. It needs a single base code to run it on different platforms.
The biggest benefit of C# is the straightforward syntax, which makes it simple and easy to use. It gets massive library support and works at high speed.
Its demerits include no support for garbage collection and less security. Its reliability on .NET resources makes it challenging to run apps made using C# on different operating systems.
Xamarin is not a programming language. It is a basically .NET platform with C# as the core language. 90% of the code is shared across the Android and iOS platforms, making app creation more straightforward and simpler.
The developers can work in Visual Studio for the entire app development process. They need not switch between different environments but share elements with platforms. Since the libraries of C# are available for use, it is easier to achieve native-level functionalities.
Since Xamarin does not support a few third-party libraries of iOS and Android, developers need to develop the unique elements they need for the app. It is not suitable for apps that need a rich user interface and user experience.
Progressive web apps
These are apps but accessible from a browser. Though similar to websites, Progressive web apps can operate offline, unlike websites. It is more like an advanced approach to creating apps for which you need browsers such as Chrome, Edge, Firefox, and Safari.
Such apps are easy to discover, install, and link. If there is no internet connectivity, you cannot use such apps. But, with technologies such as Web Storage APIs and Cache API, you can at least see the already loaded pages.
Some of the programming languages used for developing progressive web apps are:
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language used for web development. It is used to design documents that you can view online on a browser.
It has two sections: head and body. The Head section includes metadata, which is the data that describes the page. Tags are the visible elements of the web pages, which is the main component of the body section.
Advantages of HTML include a straightforward, clean syntax and a simple and easy to use and understand language. It is simple to operate it across all devices.
A clear disadvantage is that it requires a lot of coding, making it complex and challenging to handle. Limited capabilities, less security, and separate coding requirement for each page are some of the limitations of HTML.
It is an object-oriented language that enables developers to write clear, logical code for all projects. It is a high-level programming language. It uses significant indentation on top of code readability.
It is simple and easy to read and write. The code is simple, and hence, it improves productivity. Debugging is a simple process in Python. The reliance on third-party libraries is less because of access to a strong, standard library.
Since it executes the code line-by-line, the code execution is slow. It suffers from low memory and requires extensive testing on programs.
We have listed some of the commonly used programming languages for different categories of apps. While selecting the appropriate language for your app development project, you need to consider the client’s requirements. Other factors that require close attention are security, budget, application type, performance, and many more.
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